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Ang Kudlit (or diacritical mark)

Kudlit (or a diacritical mark) can be a dot, apostrophe or comma marking to change to the other vowel sounds.

Consonants without a kudlit are pronounced with an a sound.

ba   ka   da

If the kudlit is above it will be read as 'e' or 'i'.

So ba will now be read as be or bi.

Kudlit for e/i

For 'o' or 'u', you put the kudlit below the character.

You now read ba as bo or bu.


Pamudpod or krus-kudlit

The pamudpod or krus-kudlit is an x symbol, dash symbol or a cross symbol under the consonant to remove the a vowel and it will be a stand-alone consonant.



As a general rule, if you see a Baybayin character with a kudlit on top of the letter that indicates ending in e or i like

Kudlit for e/i & o/u

For kudlit or pamudpod at the bottom of the character it is for the o or u or just the single letter itself.

And, of course, without any markings will always be ending in an a sound.

As for the patinig or vowels, the kudlit (or pamudpod) does not apply.

Now let’s apply what you’ve learned to the Consonants (Mga Katinig) in the next lesson.